→The Early 20th Century
==The Early 20th Century==
The in earliest years of the 20th century, free speech and the 1st Amendment were not well established and states did ban certain publications. The case of <i>Gitlow v. New York</i> in 1925 established more clear guidelines as to what constituted free speech and protection under the 1st Amendment. This case greatly restricted the powers of states to suppress publications or speech by individuals. The <i>Adkins v. Children's Hospital</i> case in 1923 first established precedent on due process in the 5th Amendment, protecting further individuals' rights from states or organizations that infringed on those rights. In the 1930s to 1953 saw a substantial number of court decisions that sided with the federal government and that enhanced government powers. This included granting greater power for Roosevelt to apply the New Deal legislation he had worked to pass in the 1930s.
The court was instrumental in upholding the government's power to intern Japanese-American citizens, arguably a complete reversal of earlier decisions that had enhanced civil rights. The two major crises, the Great Depression and World War II, may have influenced court action to face these crises by giving the federal government greater powers. Under Chief Justice Roberts from 2005, the court has been seen as generally conservative, with decisions such as <i> United States v. Windsor</i> , which effectively upheld marriage restriction, as an example.
==The Cold War Court==