→Changes in Universal Philosophies
Common universal religions did create conflict in places where large non-universal groups persisted. For instance, Egypt still had a substantial polytheistic population until the Byzantine Emperor Justinian closed the temples in the 6th century CE. Conflict itself began to shift toward religious-based reasons, whereas wars in the past were not seen as divine battles of good versus evil but rather conflicts where the gods may or may not support their worshipers. With universal religions, however, it was easier to inspire larger groups and create larger armies. Such larger armies, such as in the 7th and 8th centuries during the Islamic conquest of the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and parts of Western Europe demonstrated that universal religions could now forge new, powerful armies. This was evident again during the period of the Crusades in the 11th and 12th centuries, as large armies, made up of a variety of Europeans, invadat ed the Levant to establish new kingdoms in that region.
Changes in Universal Philosophies==