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President Lincoln became increasingly aware of the importance of removing slaves from the southern war effort and the impact of emancipation in relation to England and France. By the summer of 1862, he was eager to issue a proclamation but was cautioned against doing so by Secretary of State William H. Seward. Secretary Seward cautioned Lincoln that if he issued a proclamation without military support in the form of a victory, it may be seen as “the last measure of an exhausted government.”<ref>Francis B. Carpenter, ''Six Months at the Whitehouse with Abraham Lincoln'' (New York, 1866), 22.</ref> Seward was correct and Lincoln waited for a military victory in the East.
== Lee Comes to Maryland ====
[[File:Robert_E_Lee_in_1863.png|thumbnail|250px|left|General Robert E. Lee, 1863]]
General Lee was a brilliant military tactician and strategist. By invading the North, Lee hoped to strike a fatal blow to the Union war effort by influencing the Border States in favor of the South, possibly capturing Washington, D.C. and gaining foreign recognition. In obtaining
acknowledgement from foreign powers as an independent nation, the CSA could then conduct foreign trade, negotiate militarily, and especially put great pressure on the United States to end the war.<ref>McPherson, ''Crossroads of Freedom'', 37.</ref>
Although the South was doing well in the eastern theater and still maintained more than 85% of initially held Confederate territory, despite losses in the western theater of the war, Lee knew that a war of attrition meant certain defeat for the Confederacy. War resources were overwhelmingly in favor of the North. The population in the northern states was 22 million compared to the 9 million in the South; 3.5 million of which were chattel slaves. The northern states boasted 1100,000 factories while the agrarian southern states house just 18,000. The Union enjoyed a 32:1 ratio in firearms and $1.5 billion dollars from the production of goods compared to the $155 million produced in the Confederacy.<ref>Eric Foner, ''Give Me Liberty! An American History'', 2nd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009), 1:486.</ref>
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