→The Cold War Court
Earl Warren, Chief Justice from 1953-1969, led perhaps the most influential period that enhanced a series of civil liberties. One of the most famous cases was <i> Brown v. Board of Education</i> which began the long process of desegregation in public schools and influenced desegregation in general across the United States. Additionally, <i>Reynolds v. Sims </i> forced states to reapportion their legislatures according to changing populations. Thus, districts have to be somewhat equal as to how they apportioned representation. Previously, low population places could be used to influence the legislative process, which in the South had led to restrictive laws against African Americans. Also, the role of religion in schools was severely limited by the case of <i>Engel v. Vitale</i>. Another landmark case was <i>Gideon v. Wainwright</i>, which required, under the 6th Amendment, states appoint an attorney for defendants in criminal cases. The Miranda rights, which are given in police cases, were also a result of the <i>Miranda v. Arizona</i> case.
The court, arguably, took a more conservative turn in the 1970s under the Burger court, that existed until 1986. Nevertheless, one of the most landmark cases, <i>Roe v. Wade</i> protected individuals' rights to abortion and prevented states from creating restrictive laws against abortion access and upheld affirmative action in <i>University of California v. Bakke</i>. It, however, struck down earlier cases that limited campaign finance in <i>Buckley v. Valeo</i>. The Rehnquist Court, from 1986-2005, generally upheld individual rights, such as <i>Lawrence v. Texas</i> that struck down Texas' sodomy law. The most controversial decision was its involvement in the 2000 election in <i> Bush v. Gore</i> that ended the recount of the election.