→The US and Socialism in Europe
==The US and Socialism in Europe==
In the late 1800s and early 1900s, it was clear that socialism in the United States began to develop differently. Mostly this was because socialism was less influential politically in the United States, even though indirectly it did influence the major parties through campaigns and strikes for better working conditions. This included the development of unions and other labor activities. Nevertheless, politically, Europe's experience was different due to a much stronger influence of socialism on political action, stemming from revolutions (e.g,. 1848) that had occurred on the continent. Political parties did well under a socialism banner, in particular the SPD in Germany where it could obtain between 4-5 million votes and run about 90
newspapes by the late 1800s. The Marxists proved to be the most influential socialists, but others emerged that argued for more gradual transitions to socialism rather than revolution. In particular, Eduard Bernstein emerged as a thinker who began to influence the SPD through gradual policies that focused on specific legislative actions. This began to form what ultimately would become the social democratic movements.
In France, the UK, and other smaller European countries, most Marxist movements began to evolve into reformist parties that influenced and led to the development of left-leaning parties, such as Labour in the United Kingdom. These parties, particularly as they achieved power, focused on legislative reforms that included worker benefits and rights. In Germany, a system of social security arose in 1889. This was enacted by Bismarck, who opposed the socialist SDP party, but Bismarck understood the influence the party had on Germany and promoted the policy as a way to stem their political rise. In effect, even when socialist policies were not directly enacted, indirectly they began to influence legislative actions throughout Europe. Norway in 1912, which is still present in the country, developed the first universal healthcare system. Other states began to create welfare programs either directly through social democratic actions or indirectly as ways to counter those parties by more right-wing parties. In effect, European political discourse had shifted, particularly in domestic policy, as the socialist-leaning parties began to agitate for change.
In the United States, socialists' popularity never materialized. During World War I, socialists became unpopular for opposing the war and draft. The Socialist Party of America considered the war 'a crime' and Woodrow Wilson signed the Espionage Act that considered it a crime to cause insubordination by obstructing the draft, as anti-draft demonstrations grew with the entry of the United States in the war. The Marxists, more prominent in Europe, were seen as mostly German thinkers, which caused greater animosity in the United States and by the end of the war, there was a greater fear of the rising influence of Marxism in Russia during the Russian Revolution. During the war, industrial strikes began to affect production, where President Wilson order a raid on the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) group that had organized some of the strikes. The Communist Party of America formed in the late 1910s and began to attract many socialists away from socialist parties and groups. The 1920s-1930s did see a period of influence of the socialists and communists in the United States, similar to Europe, where legislative reform, in particular during the Great Depression, was, in part, intended to diminish the influence of more left-leaning groups on US workers who became increasingly discontent. Franklin D. Roosevelt, himself, was often accused of being a socialist or socialist sympathizer for his New Deal reforms.
==Recent Socialism or Democratic Socialism==