In France, the UK, and other smaller European countries, most Marxist movements began to evolve into reformist parties that influenced and led to the development of left-leaning parties, such as Labour in the United Kingdom. These parties, particularly as they achieved power, focused on legislative reforms that included worker benefits and rights. In Germany, a system of social security arose in 1889. This was enacted by Bismarck, who opposed the socialist SDP party, but Bismarck understood the influence the party had on Germany and promoted the policy as a way to stem their political rise. In effect, even when socialist policies were not directly enacted, indirectly they began to influence legislative actions throughout Europe. Norway in 1912, which is still present in the country, developed the first universal healthcare system. Other states began to create welfare programs either directly through social democratic actions or indirectly as ways to counter those parties by more right-wing parties. In effect, European political discourse had shifted, particularly in domestic policy, as the socialist-leaning parties began to agitate for change.
==Recent Socialism or Democratic Socialism==