→Context of Development
==Context of Development==
The context of baroque development has to be seen in light of the great religious conflicts of the 16-17th centuries, such as the initial conflict between Luther and the Catholic Church and eventually the Thirty Years War that tore much of Europe apart. During the Council of Trent, in 1545–63, the Catholic Church was looking for a new style that would contrast itself from Protestantism and also give it a style that people could embrace. The movement begins with the development of Baroque architecture in Italy, which in the early 17th century embraced color, vivid display, and pageantry. This is manifested in the cupolas that constituted the large church domes and <i>quadratura</i> ceiling paintings. Church interiors became highly decorated and more decorative elements were added to the altar and columns of the great hall within the church. Emphasis was to put the parishioners close to the altar to make them experience the grandeur of the church and ceremony.Twisting columns had began to develop that allowed also light reflection that gives a sense of motion.
In the early 17th century, baroque now began to spread to statuary art. This included work by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who became perhaps the most influential artist to affect statuary expression of the baroque style. Music in the late 1580s already began to turn away from the Renaissance music style as composers such as Jacopo Peri began to develop not only baroque style but also what would become opera. <i>Dafne</i> was composed by him in 1597 and is often considered as the first true opera. The Medici court had patronized him and he was also influenced by Jacopo Corsi. New musical innovations or heavy use of ideas began to be associated with the baroque style, including more harmony and use of tonality that would sometimes improvise on the chords.The mid 16th century began to become called the High Baroque, where experimentation with new ostentatious styles in architecture formed as well as in art. Paintings now took on more vivid appearances, where depiction of motion was critical to the setting. Contrasts and warm colours were used in paintings to give them more life. The integration of vivid art scenes with baroque architecture became in great vogue, where artists such as Pietro da Cortona began to integrate lively figures within architecture in churches. Sculptures became far more lively, influenced by Roman style statuary, with Gian Lorenzo Bernini being the most famous sculptor in the earlier part of the Baroque period. He would later influence Giuseppe Pannin, who would go on to make the largest baroque style fountain in Rome, the Trevi Fountain.
==Spread of the Baroque==