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In Europe, we see eastern Europe, around Poland and the Czech Republic, there is a greater percentage of people who are lactose persistent. A closer look at the haplotypes, or genetic groups, that include the genes for dairy consumption indicate that not all human populations that have evolved to consume dairy show the same genes involved in the consumption of lactase.<ref>For further on the genetic makeup of Europeans in relation to the consumption of diary, see: Leonardi, Michela, Pascale Gerbault, Mark G. Thomas, and Joachim Burger. 2012. “The Evolution of Lactase Persistence in Europe. A Synthesis of Archaeological and Genetic Evidence.” International Dairy Journal 22 (2): 88–97. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2011.10.010.</ref>
In other words, there are multiple evolutionary tracts that have led to the consumption of milk around the world. This happens due to the process of coevolution, when different environmental factors lead to evolutionary changes that result in similar adaptations but involve different gene groups. In fact, there are different divergences known to us in relation to dairy consumption; dairy we know has become one of the strongest factors in early human societies fitness and likely helped societies to survive particularly in times of famine.<ref>For the coevolutionary paths of dairy, see: Gibson, Greg. 2007. “Human Evolution: Thrifty Genes and the Dairy Queen.” Current Biology 17 (8): R295–96. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.02.011. </ref> The different evolutionary changes across different societies have allowed different populations to consume dairy as adults. The invention of agriculture in the Near East is, in essence, only part of the story.