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In Mesopotamia, by 1800-1600 BC many texts had existed that dealt with medical issues; medicine here was clearly very This includes texts that we can describe as medical textbooks, where groups of tablets together formed a volume that was likely used as a reference for physicians. In fact, these texts would have sections on diagnosis as well as sections on prognosis and treatments.<ref>For information on medical texts and how they were utilized, see: Scurlock, Jo Ann, and Burton R. Andersen. 2005. ''Diagnoses in Assyrian and Babylonian Medicine: Ancient Sources, Translations, and Modern Medical Analyses''. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.</ref> What is surprising is the amount of emphasis put on observation before diagnosis in Mesopotamia, with prescribed treatments given in cases where the ailment is known. While omens and magical practices formed a large part of medical practices, it is clear there was an empirical side to medicine, with one physician focused on the magical aspects of healing and the other on the more practical methods of healing including providing medicines and other treatments.
Innovations such as medical ethics can be seen in the Law of Hammurabi (c. 1750 BC), for instance, where punishments against medical practitioners would be done in cases of failed surgeries or improper treatment.<ref>For information on patient isolation, see: Scurlock and Andersen. 2005, pg. 218.</ref>Infections that could spread were understood and people stricken would be quarantined.<ref>For information about Hammurabi’s code and its approach to medical ethics, see: Carrick, Paul. 2001. ''Medical Ethics in the Ancient World''. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, Pg. 72.</ref> Medicines were well developed and long lists of different types of medicines are known, in essence a form of pharmaceutical lists, some of the earliest known anywhere (Link below). We can deduce that the Babylonians, perhaps roughly contemporary with the Egyptians, had created the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and prescriptions by the 2nd millennium BC. Similar to Egypt, surgery was practiced, including c-sections performed on women, while removal of boils or skin ailments were done as well.<ref>For aspects of Babylonian medicine that is evident, see: Geller 2010.</ref>