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It is agreed in the pagan and the Christian sources that in the planning of the invasion of Persia, Julian did not take the counsel of his generals. It seemed that the Emperor was never willing to take advice and he trusted his own judgments. Julian was praised by the Panegyrist Liberanus for not ‘holding council with his generals but with the gods’ <ref>Libanius, Oration 18, 306</ref>. This would indicate that Julian was more interested in omens and portents than his generals, practical advice. It is recorded that the Emperor visited a shrine and received some omens which he did not share with anyone in Syria before the invasion. The reference by Liberanus may also indicate that Julian saw the invasion in a religious and mystical light and was too readily guided by his religious beliefs rather than by the reality on the ground. Julian was very religious’ and he may has believed that he was divinely favored. This is very much conveyed in his writings when he constantly referred to his guiding spirit<ref>Grant p. 118</ref>. The religious beliefs of Julian may explain some of his grievous mistakes as they appear to have clouded his judgment.
==Conclusion==
Julian’s handling of the invasion of Persian was disastrous. He had unrealistic ambitions and objectives and his planning was not based upon on the practical challenges involved. He was possibly too eager to achieve a spectacular victory to revive traditional religions and this may have led him to make basic mistakes. Julian made several strategic decisions that undermined his invasion. The Emperor failed to predict that extent of the resistance the Euphrates route to Ctesiphon and unbelievably he failed to prepare for a siege of Ctesiphon. Then he had divided his forces, which was contrary to military doctrine at the time and since. After the failure of his siege of Ctesiphon, Julian was obliged to link up with the force of Procopius and this led not only to his death but also left the Roman army in a precarious strategic position. Julian’s handling of the invasion was poor This resulted in Julian making several miscalculations that probably meant that his defeat in Persia was inevitable. The disaster in Persia in 363 AD. was to ensure that Christianity’s rise in the Roman Empire was unstoppable.  
==References==