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It is agreed in the pagan and the Christian sources that in the planning of the invasion of Persia, Julian did not take the counsel of his generals. It seemed that the Emperor was never willing to take advice and he trusted his own judgments. Julian was praised by the Panegyrist Liberanus for not ‘holding council with his generals but with the gods’ <ref>Libanius, Oration 18, 306</ref>. This would indicate that Julian was more interested in omens and portents than his generals, practical advice. It is recorded that the Emperor visited a shrine and received some omens which he did not share with anyone in Syria before the invasion. The reference by Liberanus may also indicate that Julian saw the invasion in a religious and mystical light and was too readily guided by his religious beliefs rather than by the reality on the ground. Julian was very religious’ and he may has believed that he was divinely favored. This is very much conveyed in his writings when he constantly referred to his guiding spirit<ref>Grant p. 118</ref>. The religious beliefs of Julian may explain some of his grievous mistakes as they appear to have clouded his judgment.