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How Did Black Pepper Spread in Popularity?

466 bytes added, 11:19, 17 January 2017
Early History
==Early History==
Archaeologically, we know that black pepper (Figure 1) was used at least by the 3rd millennium BCE in India. In fact, although pepper can be found in southeast Asia, it was probably India, and specifically in the province of Kerala, that pepper was most utilized or even strictly native to. For centuries, it most likely was not traded very far from its places of origin, remaining in India and influencing Indian cuisine to this day. Eventually, however, we begin to get archaeological data that suggest pepper made it to Egypt sometime around the 3-2nd millennium BCE. Traces of black pepper have been found on Ramses II, specifically in his nose, suggesting it was used in the mummification process. It was likely also used in other parts of the Near East by the 2nd 3rd millennium BCE; however, plant remains of pepper are difficult to detect so this can only be a conjecture. <ref>For more on the ancient use of black pepper, see: Ravindran, P. N., ed. 2000. <i>Black Pepper: Piper Nigrum.</i> Medicinal and Aromatic Plants--Industrial Profiles, v. 13. Australia: Harwood Academic, pg. 5.</ref>
In fact, trade and migration of Indo-Europeans in the 3rd and 2nd millennium BCE likely began to expand black pepper outside of its traditional confines in India. Indo-Europeans began to migrate across the Near East and into Europe, likely bringing their foods and tastes with them. However, archaeologically and historically, remains of pepper are very limited. This likely suggests it was either not very popular or too expensive for common consumption. Pepper can be preserved through drying easily enough, suggesting it was not preservation that would have been a major hurdle for its spread.<ref>For more on migration and the movement of black pepper, see: Sidebotham, Steven E. 2011. <i>Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route.</i> The California World History Library 18. Berkeley: University of California Press.</ref>

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