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It was no longer as open or free, and artists and writers became afraid to express their opinions. The secular and human values espoused by the Renaissance were no longer acceptable in the new and increasingly intolerant atmosphere. The Sack destroyed the last center in Italy to provide artists and writers' wealth and patronage needs. As Spain increasingly dominated the City-States of Italy and the old liberal atmosphere that contributed so much to the Renaissance was ended. The Sack of Rome in 1527 did not suddenly stop the Renaissance, but it did hasten its demise.