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===President Andrew Jackson and Indian Removal===
[[File: IndianRemoval.png|300px|thumbnail|left|Map of Indian Removal during the 1830s and the Sites of Major Battles/Resistance to Removal]]
The Second Seminole War took place in the wider context of the policy of Indian Removal, which began toward the end of President Andrew Jackson’s (in office 1829-1837) first term in office. Essentially, the plan was to remove the tribes of the southeastern United States to make room for white settlement. Although those these tribes were known as the “Five Civilized Tribes” – Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, and Seminole – due to their cooperation with the United States government, general lack of hostility toward their white neighbors, utilization of domestic agriculture, and other elements of their culture, their possession of the land was seen as a hinderance hindrance to the growing idea of Manifest Destiny. The Indian Removal Bill of 1830 made its way through Congress and was signed by President Jackson on May 28, 1830. The bill provided for funds needed to removed the tribes, forcefully if need be, and to establish them in a new homeland known as “Indian Territory” (now Oklahoma). <ref> Wilentz, Sean. <i> [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0393329216/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0393329216&linkCode=as2&tag=dailyh0c-20&linkId=efedad5e44ee9812e3610d47d8164f9f The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln].</i> (New York: W. W. Norton and Company), p. 323 </ref>
For their part, the Seminoles were always the most independent and recalcitrant of the Five Civilized Tribes. Just after the War of 1812, some of the Seminoles in northern Florida territory engaged the American military, led by future President Jackson, in low -intensity conflict that became known as the First Seminole War (1816-1818). The American-Seminole conflict was thought to have been settled after a number of treaties were signed, but the Americans made several mistakes that led to more warfare.
The Treaty of Adams-Onís was signed between the United States and Spain in 1819, officially making Florida an American territory. Not long after, American settlers began moving into the new territory and the Seminoles were moved to a large reservation in central Florida after several leaders signed the Treaty of Moultrie Creek with the United States in 1823. But as Indian removal became a priority of the Jackson administration, two treaties, both ratified by Congress and signed by President Jackson, gave the Seminoles few options. The Americans worked with what they believed were pliable Seminole leaders to get them to sign the Treaty of Payne’s Landing on May 9, 1832 , and then the Treaty of Fort Gibson on March 28, 1833. The treaties called for the removal of all Seminoles from Florida to the newly formed Indian Territory, where they would be given some monetary compensation and allowed a semi-autonomous existence. <ref> Adams, George R. “The Caloosahatchee Massacre: Its Significance in the Second Seminole War.” <i>Florida Historical Quarterly</i> 48 (1970) p. 369</ref> The government thought that the treaties settled the matter because the leaders they negotiated with were happy with the results; after all, they would be among the leadership in the new Indian Territory. But the problem was that the Seminoles were not a unified nation and were instead a collection of several different, sometimes disparate bands of people. Many of the Seminole chiefs were angry that they were not invited to the negotiations and most Seminoles did not want to leave Florida. <ref> Moulton, Gary E. “Cherokees and the Second Seminole War.” <i>Florida Historical Quarterly</i> 53 (1975) p. 296</ref>
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===War Comes to Florida Territory===
[[File: Osceola.jpg|300px|thumbnail|left|Osceola (1804-1838)]]

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