Jump to: navigation, search

How did higher education develop in the United States

544 bytes added, 11:56, 14 March 2019
Pre-Revolutionary War Higher Education
==Pre-Revolutionary War Higher Education==
Before the Revolutionary War, higher education was seen as a way to train future ministers and those who had to be able to read and interpret the Bible for the larger congregation in a community. Harvard College was the first college established in the American Colonies in 1636 (Figure 1), where it was established by the Massachusetts Bay colonial legislature. Already the US tradition of leaving colleges endowments began at this early date. John Harvard, where the College was named after him, left the school £779 and the initial 400 books donated to the library. Unlike many other colleges, the early colleges in the United States began developing a practice of receiving early endowments, although funding also came from local legislative bodies in the US colonies. Higher education was seen as unnecessary for most at this time. In fact, one of Harvard's early publications stated its purpose as: "...dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust." <ref>For more on Harvard and the earliest colleges in the American Colonies, see: Hoeveler, J. D. (2007). <i>Creating the American mind: Intellect and politics in the Colonial colleges</i>. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. </ref>
Similar to Harvard, William and Mary also received relatively important endowments with the intent of educating the ministry. The campus was established on 20,000 acres donated by the state of Virginia. Yale was established because of its rebellion of the 'liberal' theology taught at Harvard, where Puritans founded the school in 1701. Presbyterians, not satisfied with the theology of Harvard and Yale's Puritans, set up their own college called the College of New Jersey that would later be called Princeton. Within the Ivy League, all the schools, except for Cornell, were founded by ministers from different denominations. As more migration came to the colonies, new colonists felt it was necessary to start their own colleges to educate their own ministers. This was the case with Rutgers, which was founded by the Dutch Reform Church. The goals were generally always the same, which was educating the clergy. Schools were even founded to educate Native Americans in English life, which was the case with Dartmouth, founded in 1769. In the 18th and 19th centuries, those who wanted to advance their education outside of ministerial studies often had to travel abroad. Medicine soon began to be subjects created that one could study. In 1770, what would become the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons gave its first medical degree. This was prompted by the fact that medicine was poorly developed in the colonies and medical training was in dire need. Female education was first established at Salem College, founded in 1772.<ref>For more on how different religious establishments created colleges and the founding of the first female colleges, see: Kimball, B. A., & Association for Core Texts and Courses (Eds.). (2010).<i> The liberal arts tradition: a documentary history</i>. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.</ref>
[[File:AAS-RevereView-HI-RES.jpg|thumb|Figure 1. Harvard was established as the first coillege in the American Colonies. ]]

Navigation menu