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How did the concept of paradise develop

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[[File:Khaneh Ghavam.jpg|thumbnail|left|Figure 3. A modern garden in Shiraz, Iran, which are similar to the ancient Persian concept of a royal enclosure with a garden full of trees and water.]]
The word “paradise” derives from an Akkadian and Persian word (''pardesu'' is Akkadian) and (''paridayda'' in Old Persian). <ref> For more on the origins of the term "paradise" and its meaning, see: Bockmuehl, Markus N. A. 2010. [ Paradise in Antiquity: Jewish and Christian Views]. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.</ref> The term seems to specifically deal with structures or enclosures, perhaps associated with the walled gardens of temples discussed earlier. Soon, however, these gardens began to be found in other areas, including palaces or as pleasure gardens for royalty. In other words, the concept of gardens as an ideal setting spreads to more secular structures. In fact, gardens became very popular as royal areas in the Neo-Assyrian \and Neo-Babylonian Empires (9th-6th centuries BCE), spreading to the different Persian empires, such as the Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sassanians, who eventually influence Islamic empires and states that arose in the 1st millennium CE. We can still see these gardens as they were envisioned by the Persians today (Figure 3).
With the arrival of the Greeks in the Near East at the time of Alexander the Great, the Akkadian/Persian term is utilized by the Greeks, who now associate this term as a garden with animals and begin to adopt it as part of their culture. <ref>For more on the Greek concept of gardens and paradise, see: Aben, Rob, and Saskia de Wit. 1999. ''[ The Enclosed Garden: History and Development of the Hortus Conclusus and Its Reintroduction into the Present-Day Urban Landscape]''. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Pg. 249.</ref> This perhaps reflects the change that these gardens underwent, from generally being associated with temple architecture to also becoming royal parks enclosed in areas for kings in Western societies. The concept of royal garden develops further in Rome, and begins to be found in their great palaces and large houses, spreading to various parts of Europe.

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