How did the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) change England?
The defeat and destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588 is seen by many as the high point of Elizabeth I’s of England’s reign. If the Armada had been successful, it could have changed the course of English and world history. The defeat of the Armada had profound consequences for England. The first consequence of the English victory was that it secured its independence.
With defeat of the Armada, England become a serious European naval power. Britain's navy was the foundation of the future British Empire. As a result of the failed invasion, by Catholic Spain, England became more self-consciously Protestant and Catholicism became increasingly unpopular and was viewed as anti-English. The English also saw the defeat of the Armada as an act of divine providence. It confirmed to them that England was a kingdom destined for greatness.
Why did Spain send the Spanish Armada to invade England? Queen Elizabeth the First initially pursued a moderate religious policy to minimize religious conflict between Catholic and Protestant. However, Elizabeth soon found herself under pressure from Spain - the preeminent Catholic power in the world at that time. Spain's influence reach stretched across Europe and into the Americas.
The Spanish King Phillip II was an ardent Catholic and he had two primary ambitions. First, he wanted to return all Protestants back to the Catholic faith. Second, he hoped to to expand the growing power of Spain. The Spanish King had been married to Mary I of England and it seemed that for a time that England would fall under Spanish influence. However, the coronation of Elizabeth I had fundamentally altered this dynamic because she was determined to maintain England's independence from Spain. Spain, on the hand, wanted to force the English back into the Catholic fold and end the attacks of English pirates on their ships and colonies in the Americas.
Elizabeth, I had encouraged English privateers, such as Sir Francis Drake to mount attacks on Spanish targets. Elizabeth sought to limit the power of Spain and to secure some of the riches ‘of the America colonies for her subjects.’ The English Queen also supported the Dutch in their revolt against Phillip II. Relations between Spain and England deteriorated rapidly and by the mid-1580s the two countries were in an undeclared war. A war that was to last until the end of Elizabeth’s reign. Spain was the richest and the most powerful Empire in Europe and Phillip decided that he would invade England. He believed that if he was successful it would help him to secure many of his strategic objectives in Europe. The Spanish presented the Armada as a Catholic crusade and it was partially funded by the Papacy.
How did England defeat the Spanish Armada?
The launch of the Armada had been delayed several times, including once because of a raid by the English on Cadiz. The Spanish Armada was a fleet of 130 ships and it first left the port of Coruna in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, the most powerful noble in Spain. The fleet was ordered to sail to the English Channel and transport a large army in Flanders into England. The aim of the invasion was to depose Elizabeth I and to reimpose Catholicism on the English people. The fleet was an impressive and the Spanish were experienced, sailors and navigators. However, the commander Medina-Sidonia was old and relatively inexperienced and he committed mistake after mistake throughout the campaign.
The Spanish fleet despite its numerical advantage did not attack the English fleet based at Portsmouth and instead sailed to Calais. The Spanish army under the Duke of Parma was advancing to Calais to be transported to England. However, the English navy under Drake and Howard attacked the Armada with fireships, and this was the start of what became known as the Battle of Grave lines. The English tactic of using fire-ships, created panic among the Spaniards and the fleet was broken up into small groups of ships. The battle lasted over a week with both sides launching attacks. However, Medina-Sidonia decided to withdraw. This decision was decisive as it meant that the Spanish army was unable to rendezvous with the invasion army. Drake and the other English commanders were happy to let the Armada sail away from the invasion force. Then a strong wind from the southwest forced the fleet to sail to the north and into the North Sea.
How was the Spanish Armada destroyed?
Medina-Sidonia tried to regroup his ships and withdraw to Spain. This ended Spain's attempt to invade England was over, but it did not end the Armada's problems. At this point, the Armada sought only to survive and return to Spain. Unfortunately, inclement weather and a strong south-western wind meant that the Spanish could not return via the English Channel. This wind later became known in England as a ‘Protestant Wind.’
The Spanish Command, which could not communicate with Madrid, decided to round the British Isles. The Armada sailed around Scotland but the English navy continued to harry the Spanish fleet. The weather was very unseasonable for that time of year and the Phillip's fleet was battered by strong gales and massive storms. As the Armada made their way around Scotland they began to lose ships. Many more ships were wrecked on the west coast of Ireland and the survivors were hunted down and killed by natives loyal to the English crown. By the time that the remnants of the Spanish invasion fleet made it to Spain over two-thirds of the original Armada was lost. While the defeat of the Spanish Aramada did not end the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War which would continue until 1604, it made if difficult for Spain to to get the upper hand. Eventually, the conflict ended in a stalemate.
Could Spain have taken England if had successfully landed its invasion force?
The Spanish Armada is one of the great ‘ifs’ in history. If the Spanish ships had been able to rendezvous with the army of Flanders and transport it across the Channel, then England may have been defeated. The Spanish army was considered to be the best in Europe at this time and it was composed not only of Spanish but German veterans. The English army was mainly composed of local militias and was poorly led and trained. In a set piece battle, on land, the Spanish forces would most likely have been victorious and deposed Elizabeth I. The kingdom of England would have become part of the Spanish Empire. Phillip II did not plan to rule it directly but planned to place a Catholic on the throne. Philip wanted an ally that would become dependent on Spain. The defeat of the Armada prevented this from happening and secured the independence of England. England's victory allowed her to become a major world power by the eighteenth century.
What impact did the defeat of the Spanish Armada have on Catholics in England?
Phillip II wanted to return England to Catholicism. If the Armada had been successful then it seems likely that a Catholic king or queen would have been placed on the throne. They would have had the power to overturn the Protestant establishment in the country. No longer would the Church of England be the state church and once again the Catholic Church would have been the only recognized religion. Phillip II believed that it was right for a monarch to ensure religious conformity in their kingdom. The new Catholic monarch probably would have persecuted Protestants in much the same way as Mary I had during her reign. With Catholicism reestablished this could have hobbled Protestantism in England.
By the 1580s, the Church of England was supported by most English people and they would have resisted any attempt to reimpose the Catholic faith. Still it is likely that England would have suffered a series of Religious Wars similar to France in the sixteenth century. However, the failure of the Armada meant that the Church of England was now more secure than ever before. Increasingly, the English people began to see themselves as a Protestant people. They saw Protestantism as an integral part of Englishness and important for their freedom. Many English people became even more anti-Catholic after the Armada. ‘Popery’ as they referred to Catholicism was associated with autocracy, intolerance, and slavery. This anti-Catholicism was an important aspect of English political life for many years.
On the hand, English Catholics faced an increasingly difficult life in England after the Armada's destruction. Catholics, known as ‘recusants,’ refused to recognize the Church of England. They came under official and unofficial pressure to conform to the state religion and give up their faith. Even loyal English Catholics became suspect and as a result, more and Catholics converted to Protestantism. By the end of the reign of Elizabeth, England was a Protestant nation, with only a small oppressed Catholic minority. The Armada had played an important role in this process. Phillip II had attempted to overturn the religious settlement in England but his attempted invasion only strengthened it. The people of England began to see themselves in providential terms and in biblical terms as an ‘elect nation.’  The English began to believe that they were chosen by God to carry out his will. This sense of mission was one that was very important in later decades and was an important factor in the growth of English power, especially in the seventeenth and eighteenth century.
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It has often been stated that the defeat of the Armada ended the Spanish superiority at sea and begun England’s rise as a global naval power. This was not the case. The year following the defeat of the Spanish Armada the English monarch launched the ‘English Armada.’ This was a naval attack on Spain, but it was heavily defeated with substantial English losses. Madrid changed its strategy and a series of fortifications were built in the Americas that gave greater protection against English and other privateers. Spain, after the defeat of the Armada, remained the premier maritime power outside China. However, the defeat of the Armada did lead to long-term changes that proved to be very important in the rise of England as a naval power. There was a recognition, after the attempted Spanish invasion that the English needed a strong navy and successive English administrations pursued policies that helped to expand the navy. England focused on developing new technologies and building ‘modern shipyards.’  These changes laid the groundwork for England naval power.
Additionally, if the Spanish Armada had been a success it is highly unlikely that England would have been able to successfully plant colonies in North America. In the early seventeenth century, English colonies were founded at Plymouth Rock and Jamestown. If the Spanish had placed one of their candidates on the throne of England then this may never have occurred. The defeat of the Armada saw England emerge as, if not a dominant naval power but an important one, and the principal colonizer of North America. Additionally, English trading companies such as the East India Company expanded across the globe. England's naval capability directly lead to the growth and development of the British Empire.
The defeat of the Armada was a major turning point in English history. It saved the throne of Elizabeth I and guaranteed English independence from Spain. The Spanish saw the invasion as a crusade and one that would stamp out the heresy of Protestantism in England. The failure of the invasion meant that Protestantism became more entrenched and less sympathetic to Catholicism. Indeed, in the aftermath of the Armada, Protestantism became part of the national identity. To be English was to be a Protestant and to reject Catholicism. The attempted Spanish invasion led to the adoption of an anti-Catholic discourse, known as Popery and this was an important factor in English political life for over two centuries. The Armada did not end Spanish maritime supremacy but it did lead to England becoming a formidable naval power. This allowed it to found colonies and trading companies in the early seventeenth century that were to lay the foundation for the British Empire.
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