How did the Sepoy Rebellion (Indian Mutiny) change India?

A painting of fighting during the Mutiny

One of the most important events in all of Indian history was the Indian Mutiny of 1857, also known as the First War for Independence or the Sepoy Rebellion. The Rebellion represented the single greatest threat to British control of the sub-continent before 1947. The mutiny was, in reality, a war of independence. It profoundly changed the British administration of India.

While the British suppressed the revolt, it fundamentally transformed the colonial system in India. After the Mutiny, the Revolt forced Great Britain to administer the sub-continent directly and ended the East India Company's control over India. The Europeans were also obliged to undertake several reforms to pacify the Indians, and they helped to modernize the vast country. Most importantly, the Indian rebellion paved the way for the Independence of the sub-continent in 1948.

Why were Indians frustrated with the East India Company and British rule before the Indian Mutiny?

The last Mughal

India was not formerly a colony of Britain in 1857, but in fact, it was dominated by the British. The East India Company received a Royal Charter from Elizabeth I in 1600. Initially, the company sought to increase trade with the Indian subcontinent. Over time it morphed from a trading company into the ruler of India.

This transformation included the creation of a large army that was supported by the British government. The East Company managed India, and it was essentially the sovereign power in the territories. [1]

The British via the East India Company were able to dominate India by 1820, and they ruled the sub-continent through ‘subsidiary alliances’ with local Hindu and Muslim rulers. British officials had begun a policy of land seizures and they began to replace the old Hindu and Muslim elites. Typically, when a Hindu or Muslim Prince died his lands were confiscated by the British though a variety of doubtfully legal stratagems.[2] These actions alienated the old elite who had often been independent rulers even during the heyday of Mughal power. Moreover, the decline of the Hindu princes meant that many Brahmins were unable to secure financial supports.

What united both Hindus and Muslims was a dislike for the Western Missionaries whom they saw as imposing a foreign religion on the people. Many of the reforms of the British governor Lord Dalhousie were also bitterly resented. They were seen as an attack on traditional beliefs and value such as the caste system.[3] There were also economic issues; the East Indian Company was accused of imposing oppressive taxes on the Indian population and impoverishing many. Moreover, the introduction of free-market reforms resulted in many Indians losing their lands to moneylenders.

The Indian Mutiny 1857-1858: the Rebellion

Indian Sepoy soldiers

The Sepoy Rebellion started in East India Company's army. The British were reliant on native soldiers or Sepoys to maintain their grip over the country. However, many Indian soldiers in the army, both Hindu and Muslim, were very dissatisfied and resented the Europeans.

The revolt began when a new rifle was introduced, and soon there was a rumor among the Sepoys that the cartridges were smeared with pigs and cows' fat. The cartridges had to be bitten before they could be loaded, and this was anathema to many Hindus and Muslims. Biting the cartridges meant that they were eating beef or pork, which was unacceptable in their religion.

There is no evidence that beef and pork lard was ever used to grease the cartridges, and it seems that it was only a wild rumor. The rumor may have been designed explicitly to outrage ranks Sepoys. The Sepoys (both Hindu and Muslim) would have seen it as an insult to their religions. Some argue that the revolt broke out because it was only in the military that Indians were organized.[4] The British were utterly unaware of the discontent among their native troops.

In March 1857, a Sepoy attacked several British officers. The soldier was captured and later executed by a firing squad. Several weeks later, some Indian troopers refused to use the cartridges, and the British imprisoned them. This led to some of their comrades killing their officers and marched on Delhi and restored the old Mughal Emperor to power.[5] As a result of this bold action, there was a series of mutinies throughout northern and central India.

The revolt typically involved the Sepoys killing European soldiers and often civilians. There were many instances when Indian rebels besieged British soldiers and civilians across the north of India, most famously Lucknow. The revolt was decentralized, and the only goal that Sepoys was to expel the British from India. The Sepoys initially made significant advances and easily defeated the loyal troops of the East India Company, and they seized many cities and towns.

However, many of the Indian Princes stayed loyal to the British. Some Indian ethnic groups such as the Sikhs cooperated with the British. London rushed regular forces to India, and these, together with loyal Sepoys, began the counterattack.

Their first objective was to recapture Delhi.[6] Under Sir Colin Campell, the British retook Agra and later relieved the siege of Lucknow, after some bitter fighting. The British committed many atrocities and killed rebels and their supporters in cold blood.

Even after the British had recaptured the cities, the Sepoys continued to attack the British. The Britsh government engaged in a bloody campaign to eradicate the last vestiges of the rebellion. This campaign resulted in widespread famine across India. Some commentators believe that hundreds of thousands of Indians died as a direct or indirect result of the uprising. The fighting continued throughout 1858. Britain finally ended the revolution in 1859.

Why was Queen Victoria named the Empress of India?

Bahadur Shah Zafar was the Mughal Emperor who ruled Delhi but had no real power outside the city. During the revolt, he became the titular leader of the uprising. Because of his support of the rebels, he was imprisoned and tried in a military court. [7] He was charged with helping the rebels to kill numerous Europeans. He was convicted and exiled to Burma. His trial and banishment to Burma was the effective end of the Mughal dynasty, who once ruled nearly all of the sub-continent since the 17h century.

In 1877, Queen Victoria, on the advice of her imperialist Prime Minister Disraeli took the title of Empress of India. This title was an exert control of India by the British government and symbolize British authority. Successive British monarchs held the title of Emperor of India until 1948.

How did Britain Reorganize the Indian government after the Sepoy Rebellion?

A drawing of a scene from the siege of Lucknow

Before the Mutiny, the government of Indian was technically in the hands of the East India Company, and they were responsible for many aspects of the state. The Sepoy rebellion showed that the Company was no longer able to cope with the demands of ruling such a vast and diverse area.

Under the government of India Act (1858), the Company was stripped of its remaining power, its army disbanded, and its assets liquidated. London was to govern India directly, and the office of the Viceroy of India was established. The law also set up the Indian civil service and reorganized the old East India Company military forces, which was incorporated into the regular British Indian army. After the defeat of the rebels, the British recruited more men from minorities such as the Gurkhas and the Sikhs, as they believed that they would be more dependable and loyal than Muslims and Hindus.

Perhaps the most significant aspect of the reforms in the aftermath of the Mutiny or rebellion was that the British were more willing to cooperate with the traditional native elites. Increasingly they were ready to allow the Hindu and Muslims princes to stay in power as long as they were loyal to the colonists.[8] After the uprising, the Princely states were integrated into the system of government, and they retained a great deal of autonomy. Britain ended the seizure of the lands of the Princes and acknowledged that their heirs could inherit their kingdoms.

The British also opened up several universities to educate high-caste Indians, who would later become civil servants. However, there were limits to this policy, and the civil service continued to be dominated by white Europeans. There was also a deliberate policy of refraining from free-market reforms and of respecting the traditional economic elite. Members of the Indian elite supported these measures, but they resulted in slow economic growth and increased poverty.[9]

End of attempts at Westernisation

Prior to the rebellion of 1857, the British had attempted to impose western beliefs, customs, and values. Many Governor- Generals had imposed western laws on Indians without regarding traditional customs and values [10]. There were laws that granted Indian women rights that were similar to those enjoyed by Western women, which were greatly resented by many conservatives. Moreover, many traditions were outlawed such as that which forbade a Hindi widow to remarry. In particular, the introduction of western education was resented. The British after the Mutiny were very wary of enacting policies that could have been considered to be western. Prior to the rebellion the East Indian Company and British officials supported the activities of Western Christian Missionaries, which was very controversial. In the aftermath of the Mutiny the British were reluctant to do anything to offend the religious feelings of the Indians [11].

How did the Sepoy Rebellion lead a sustained push for Indian independence?

Indians never staged a revolt on the scale of the Mutiny. The British army's brutal repression prevented another revolution of this size. In the wake of the Rebellion, London was anxious about its position in India after the defeat of the Sepoy Rebellion. The British were a tiny minority in the sub-continent, and the revolt demonstrated to them how weak was their control over the country.

Queen Victoria, on the advice of her government-issued the proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India' (1858). This edict stated that Indians were to have the same rights and parity of esteem with the Empire's other subjects. In effect, Indians were offered equality with Britain's other subjects. Initially, this effort won over many Indians and briefly quieted India's push for independence.

However, the Europeans did not treat the Indians as their equal and the Indians were still treated as inferior and subject people. The failure of the British to honor the terms of the proclamation angered Indians. Over time, Britain's continuous efforts to marginalize Indians played a critical role in the growing calls for independence starting in the 1890s. The Rebellion is a crucial part of the Indian independence movement. Nationalists were later inspired by it and saw it as a precursor of their struggle. Many, in particular, were inspired by the fact that Muslims and Hindus fought the colonists and had a common aim.

Conclusion

The Indian Mutiny was perhaps the greatest challenge to British rule during the Raj, and it shook their confidence in their ability to control the sub-continent. In the aftermath of the conflict that cost tens of thousands of lives, Britain changed the way it administered India. The East India Company was dissolved, and direct rule was initiated. Queen Victoria’s even adopted the title Empress of India.

The British overhauled the government of India and became more willing to collaborate with local elites. They also were very careful to avoid imposing western norms and values on Indians. While these policies may have been improvement, they did not permanently quell Indians' desire to retake India from Britain. The Mutiny or the First War of Indian Independence became a symbol that inspired many to seek national determination.

Further Reading

Herbert, Christopher. War of no pity: the Indian mutiny and Victorian trauma. Princeton University Press, 2008. Ĝ Blomfield, David. Lahore to Lucknow: The Indian Mutiny Journal of Arthur Moffat Lang. Pen and Sword, 1992.

Kaye, John William. History Of The Indian Mutiny Of 1857-8–Vol. II [Illustrated Edition]. Pickle Partners Publishing, 2014.

References

  1. Bandyopadhyay, Sekhara (2004), From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, New Delhi: Orient Longman, p. 523
  2. Bandyopadhyay, 121
  3. Hibbert, Christopher (1980), The Great Mutiny: India 1857, London: Allen Lane, p. 472
  4. Hibbert, 1980
  5. Hibbert, p. 87
  6. Hibbert, 1980
  7. Dalrymple, William, The Last Mughal. London: Viking Penguin, p. 123
  8. Hibbert, 1980
  9. Hibbert, 1980
  10. Bandyopadhyay, p. 321
  11. Washbrook, D. A., "India, 1818–1860: The Two Faces of Colonialism", in Porter, Andrew (ed.), Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press (2002), pp. 395–421
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