How did higher education develop in the United States
The United States is known for its numerous higher education possibilities with many universities offering undergraduate and graduate degrees. The large increase of universities in the United States is relatively recent, with the early history of higher education often dominated by a few universities that were very parochial with their offerings. This changed greatly since the Industrial Revolution and post-World War II era.
Pre-Revolutionary War Higher Education
Before the Revolutionary War, higher education was seen as a way to train future ministers and those who had to be able to read and interpret the Bible for the larger congregation in a community. Harvard College was the first college established in the United States in 1636, where it was established by the Massachusetts Bay colonial legislature. Already the US tradition of leaving colleges endowments began at this early date. John Harvard, where the College was named after him, left the school £779 and the initial 400 books donated to the library. Unlike many other colleges, the early colleges in the United States began developing a practice of receiving early endowments, although funding also came from local legislative bodies in the US colonies. Higher education was seen as unnecessary for most at this time. In fact, Harvard's initial motto stated: "...dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust."
Similar to Harvard, William and Mary also received relatively important endowments with the intent of educating the ministry. The campus was established on 20,000 acres donated by the state of Virginia. Yale was established because of its rebellion of the 'liberal' theology taught at Harvard, where Puritans founded the school in 1701. Presbyterians, not satisfied with the theology of Harvard and Yale's Puritans, set up their own college called the College of New Jersey that would later be called Princeton. Within the Ivy League, all the schools, except of Cornell, were founded by ministers from different denominations. As more migration came to the colonies, new colonists felt it was necessary to start their own colleges to educate their own ministers. This was the case with Rutgers, which was founded by the Dutch Reform Church. The goals were generally always the same, which was educating the clergy. Schools were even founded to educate Native Americans in English life, which was the case with Dartmouth, founded in 1769. In the 18th and 19th centuries, those who wanted to advance their education outside of ministerial studies often had to travel abroad. Medicine soon began to be subjects created that one could study. In 1770, what would become the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons gave its first medical degree. This was prompted by the fact that medicine was poorly developed in the colonies and medical training was in dire need.
Developments in the Industrial Age
Throughout the first half of the 19th century, colleges continued to open and focus on ministry education, with now more Catholic as well as Protestant colleges opened. Not all taught in English, with some of the German migrants opening their own ministries and teaching in German. Although the focus was on the ministry, a liberal arts education began to develop that encompassed more than just theology. This included Greek, Latin, ethics, logic, and ancient history. Some universities taught courses such as 'moral science' as part of their ministerial education focus. In addition, the beginnings of the sciences began to be taught, mainly mathematics. Prior to 1850, laboratories did not exist and almost all education was based on lecture style. Most colleges enrolled individuals younger than 18. The colleges also established preparatory schools and enrollments was often limited to dozens for even some of the larger schools. Tuition was also very low, even by early 19th century standards, and literary societies, rather than fraternities or sororities, existing as the main diversion from academic study.
Developments that occurred during this period include some universities being more selective with admissions. This was often driven by class rather than having admissions driven by achievement, where education was not seen as enabling social mobility but rather perpetuating the religious and class structure within the US. In particular, the Ivy League began to have a reputation in the 19th century as being very exclusive, catering to the elite of society. This helped to form what would ultimately become the elite Northeastern classes that dominated Civil War and post-Civil War society in the United States. Increasingly, other countries, such as Germany, began to reorient universities to focus on new developments in the sciences, including chemistry and physics. In the United States, there were increased needs for engineering, particularly industrial engineering, and agricultural sciences. Pennsylvania State University in 1855 would develop into an early university and college that provided agricultural science training in 1855. In the 1860s, land grant universities began to appear in states, particularly the newer states in the Midwest. Iowa State, Purdue, Michigan State, and Michigan State were among the first that focused on agriculture and engineering that were intended to benefit the states as they developed economically. As land grant universities and colleges began to open, a new goal emerged, which was to educate (men mostly at this point) people so that they could develop better values and knowledge. Effectively, this developed the idea that colleges and universities could also become vehicles for social mobility for families that had previously been poorly educated. Minorities continued to be poorly served, but by 1890 land grant universities began to be extended to Black Colleges through legislation by Congress.