The Santa Hermandades were one such group created in Spain who often kept pilgrims and others safe on roads. They were an association of individuals who saw their task was to keep order and security, particularly for pilgrims traveling.<ref>For more on the Santa Hermandades, see: Constable, O. R., & Zurro, D. (Eds.). (2012). Medieval Iberia: readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish sources (2nd ed). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pg. 252.</ref> Protective councils largely maintained the authority and power to protect citizens in many regions throughout Europe. In France, the positions of the Constable and Marshal of France were military positions that were also responsible for internal security, similar to a military police type duties seen today with more common policing powers. These officials were responsible for repelling internal strife but also keeping peace in the cities and highways of the country.<ref>For more on Constable and Marshal of France, see: Allmand, C. T. (Ed.). (2000). War, government and power in late medieval France. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.</ref>
[[File:Robert Peel Portrait.jpeg|thumbnail|Figure 2.
Rober Peel was the key figure that established the Metropolitan Police ( Scottland Yard).]]
To a large extent, policing remained ad hoc for much of the Medieval period. In the 17th century, with religious wars rampant in Europe, new forces were created that became responsible for policing in England and France. The term "police" is used during the period of the English Civil War, which was a force that protected citizens and maintained order during a period of instability, where its role also included enforcing the decrees of Parliament. In Paris, the first dedicated police department was created in 1667. The responsibility of the department was to protect citizens and remove any threat of disturbances. Similar to what happened in Rome, it was population increase and rise of crime that led to the development and impetus to create a more organized force to police the city. The police were led by a police lieutenant who was assisted by commissioners that maintained control of different districts within Paris. This system by the late 17th century was extended to the entire country, creating effectively the first national police force.<ref>For more on how Paris developed its policing, see: Roth, M. P. (2011). Crime and punishment: a history of the criminal justice system (2nd ed). Australia ; Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, pg. 210.</ref>