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The Battle of the Somme or the Somme Offensive was a series of battles that occurred during the Summer and Autumn of 1916. It involved British and French forces launching a massive assault on the German lines in an effort to break the stalemate on the Western Front. The Battle was primarily a battle between the Germans and the British. The offensive achieved very little and both sides suffered heavy casualties. The British only advanced a few miles and the German lines held. The stalemate was not broken by the offensive. Historians have argued whether the Somme was a failure or a partial success. It is clear that the British and French did not secure their main objectives during the battle. Why did the Somme offensive failed to achieve its planners’ primary goals? This failure at the Somme was due to poor leadership, planning and a stubborn German defence.
Since 1914, the war on both the eastern and the western front had become a war of attrition. Both sides had established a series of defensive lines, involving thousands of miles of trenches and they regularly attacked and counter-attacked each other for little or no strategic or tactical advantage.<ref> Gilbert, M. <i>[https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0805081275/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0805081275&linkCode=as2&tag=dailyh0c-20&linkId=215891b2156d756f1e4b5799a19bf45c The Somme: Heroism and Horror in the First World War]. </i> (Henry Holt and Company, 2006), p. 56</ref> The western military and the governments were eager to end the war or at least to be seen as delivering a victory. There were concerns that the public would not tolerate a war indefinitely.
The resources of France and Britain had become stretched and they needed a victory to demonstrate that they were winning the war to their public. There was a genuine desire to end the stalemate which was costing thousands of lives per week.<ref> Gilbert, p. 112</ref> Then there was the strategic situation on both the eastern and the western front. The Russians had been planning their own assault on the Austro-Hungarians in the east, an attack from the west would mean that the Germans could not come to the aid of their allies in Vienna. Then there were the almost simultaneous massive battles taking place in Verdun.<ref> Gilbert, p. 113</ref> The Germans and the French were engaged in a bloody battle for the fortress of Verdun. The French army had found itself hard pressed and many feared that they would break and this could result in the Germans driving a wedge between the British in the north and the French armies in the south. The Somme was seen as necessary to alleviate the pressure on the French and to assist the Russian offensive.
[[File: Somme 2.jpg|thumbnail|300px|left|left|German Soldier at the Somme]]
General Sir Douglas Haig assumed command of the British army in early 1916. He wanted to launch the offensive nearer the English Channel to be closer to the British supply lines. However, the French pressured the British to have the offensive in the Somme region. When the Verdun offensive started the Somme area saw the withdrawal of many German units. The Germans had little reserves in the area and it seemed that the Somme was the perfect location.<ref>Keegan, J.<i>[https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0375700455/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0375700455&linkCode=as2&tag=dailyh0c-20&linkId=05f6a7874da643b9c91e35ee4c241268 The First World War] </i>.(London: Random House, 1998), p. 12</ref>
The Anglo-French attack was to break the German lines and achieve a breakthrough that would allow the allies to drive a wedge between the Germans armies in France. The British after a five-day bombardment were to launch a massive infantry assault, once the Germans had fled from their trenches, the British cavalry would push forward and seize key objectives such as railroads and bridges in the Somme.<ref>Keegan, p. 56</ref> However, the British had failed to understand the nature of the German defences on the Somme. They had added a third line of defence, had established a telephone system and had dug even more trenches. The German defences did have some deficiencies but they proved to be formidable. The British underestimated the German defences and this was to prove costly during the coming battles.<ref> Keegan, p 116</ref>
===Battles Tactics of the Somme===
[[File: British Mark I male tank Somme 25 September 1916.jpg|left|thumbnail|300px|British tank at the Somme]]
The British committed hundreds of thousands of men to the fighting. The British troops on the Somme was a mixture of the surviving members of the old regular army, the Territorial Force and Kitchener's Army, comprised of volunteers including the ‘Pals Battalions’, that had been recruited from the same towns and villages. <ref> Middlebrook, M. <i>[https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0141390719/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0141390719&linkCode=as2&tag=dailyh0c-20&linkId=a43b8bf537d738980065094321836135 The First Day on the Somme]. </i>(London, Penguin, 1971</ref>
The battle was one of the bloodiest of the war and indeed of any other war. The estimates for casualties are inexact and only educated guesses. It is widely believed that the British and French suffered some 600,000 killed and wounded. The Germans suffered about 500,000 casualties. The Anglo-French armies did manage to make real and significant gains, especially after the initial phases of the offensive. At the end of the battle in November, the British and French forces had penetrated some 6 miles into German occupied territory. The offensive had recaptured more grind that at any other battle since the Battle of the Marne in 1914. However, they had failed to take many of their objectives such as Peronne and Bapume. It could be argued that the Battle of the Somme did not end as the British resumed their attacks in the area in 1917. The Somme did not deliver a death blow to the Germans, they were forced back to their second and third lines of defence. They had retreated in good order and they had been able to maintain their lines and there was no general Allied breakthrough. This has led many to see the Somme as a failure. However, some have argued that the Germans suffered significant losses and that this contributed to their eventually collapse in 1918.<ref>Prior, p. 211</ref>
The planning for the Somme offensive was rushed. Haig had only been in his role since the previous December. He wanted the British army to attack further north but political considerations meant that he had to heed the opinions of the French. The planning was also rushed as the British needed to come to the aid of the French at Verdun and also to attack during the Russian offensive. This meant that there was a failure to coordinate the British units effectively. Many have argued that the Somme offensive would have had a better chance of success if it had not been rushed. However, it was not only rushed planning that was a problem.
Furthermore, the Germans although they had far fewer guns had them organised in a very effective way in so-called ‘barrage sectors’ and this allowed them to inflict devastating casualties at the Somme. This was not expected and that meant that the Allies did not achieve the breakthrough that they expected. Then the German soldiers during the battle had been better prepared for example they did not find themselves loaded down with equipment like the British who had to carry almost eight pounds into battle.<ref> Middlebrooks, p. 116</ref> Furthermore, German units proved to be more flexible and could respond better to the dynamic battlefield situation. For example, the Germans proved to be able to adapt to the threat posed by the tanks and they found ways to disable and neutralise them.
The Battle of the Somme was not the failure it is often portrayed. It did play an important role in the eventual German defeat in 1918 and did allow the allies to recapture some strategic territory. However, given the losses the battle did not achieve much and the Germans did not suffer any major strategic defeats. In fact, they proved capable of continuing the fight on the western front for another two years. The failure of the Allies to achieve their main objectives despite the massive losses was due to several factors and they include poor and rushed planning. These meant that there were deficiencies in the planning process and this hampered the allies advance. Then the Germans proved adept in defending their positions and they had established massive defensive lines. The British Generals in particularly placed too much faith on their new weapons especially their tanks and on the ability of artillery to dislodge and destroy defenders in networks of trenches. These all ensured that the Somme largely failed to be the decisive victory that its planners had hoped for in the Spring of 1916.
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